Summary: 1. Introduction. Distinguishing between Public and Private Prosecution. – 2. The Legal Nature of Private Prosecution. – 3. Features of Prosecutor Participation in Private Criminal Cases: The Example of the Supreme Court Grand Chamber Decision. – 4. Concluding Remarks.
Background: Maintaining prosecution in criminal cases in court is a specific function of the prosecutor, which is enshrined in both the Constitution of Ukraine and the provisions of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine. This function should meet not only the objectives of criminal justice but also international standards in the field of criminal justice. Criminal proceedings are divided into public and private, depending on the type of socially dangerous act. And depending on the type of accusation, the functions of the prosecutor in the exercise of their powers are different. Thus, in cases of private prosecution, the participation of the victim is crucial, and his/her refusal to prosecute may be grounds for closing the criminal proceedings. This note related to the study of the innovative approach of the Supreme Court’s law enforcement practice shows the active role of the prosecutor in considering these categories of criminal cases in court.
Methods: We thoroughly analysed the case-law of the Supreme Court of Ukraine, as well as the provisions of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine and other legislative acts. We also generalised and studied the case-law of Ukrainian courts, as well as recommendations of the CoE and the doctrine of the criminal procedural law of Ukraine.
Results and Conclusions: The authors drew several conclusions about various forms of private prosecution with their own specifics, which are manifested in the aspects mentioned in this note.