Summary: 1. Introduction. – 2. The Genesis of the Concept of Human Rights Generations. – 3. Classification of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms Restrictions. – 4. Restrictions of Human Rights in the ECtHR’s Case-Law. – 5. Limitations of Social and Economic Human Rights. – 6. Conclusion.
This article is devoted to the study of the legal grounds for restrictions of human rights in the ECtHR’s case-law. The study stipulates that the concept of generations of human rights, based on the historical progress of ensuring human rights and fundamental freedoms, is a set of rights that require the proper protection and will
constantly shift towards large-scale expansion, taking into account changes in society and the achievements of humanity.
The study notes that even though at the end of the 20th century, the idea of human rights’ division into three generations (civil and political; social, economic and cultural; collective rights) was proposed in the science of international law, nowadays, it is difficult to clearly attribute certain rights to these categories.
The research states that the division of rights into generations is convenient, but it should be noted that the concept of three generations of human rights is based on the historical progress of ensuring human rights and fundamental freedoms. Therefore, the set of rights that require protection will constantly change.
The article highlights a few restrictions on human rights and freedoms, mainly concerning the first and second generations. The study determines that the specifics of restrictions of fundamental human rights are directly related to the difference between absolute and relative rights.
The ECtHR explains that the objectives of human rights restrictions are substantially expanded and introduced in order to: maintain the state and public safety or economic well-being of the country; prevent riots or crimes; protect health or morals; ensure the rights and freedoms of others; protect the national security, territorial integrity; prevent of disclosure of confidential information; maintain the authority and impartiality of judicial authorities.