Summary: 1. Introduction – 2. International Crimes stricto sensu and Viral Homicide. – 2.1. Viral Homicide and Cyberattacks. – 2.2. Can Viral Homicide Be Prosecuted as a Crime Against Humanity? – 2.2.1. Actus reus of Crime Against Humanity. – 2.2.2. Mens rea in the Crime Against Humanity. – 2.3. Can Viral Homicide Be Prosecuted as a Crime Against Humanity of Murder? – 2.4. Can Viral Homicide Be Prosecuted as ‘Other Inhumane Acts’ under Art. 7. 1. (k) – Would It Violate the Principle of nullum crimen sine lege ? – 2.4.1 The Principle of nullum crimen sine lege under Art. 22(2) of the Rome Statute. – 2.4.2. The lex certa Principle. – 3. Does the ICC Have Jurisdiction over Non- party State Nationals? – 3.1. Art. 12(2) (a) Requires That the Conduct in Question, not the Consequence, Takes Place in any Part of the Territory of a State Party. – 3.2. The ICC Does not have Universal Jurisdiction – 3.3. The Customary International Law Principle of ‘Effects Doctrine’ is Inapplicable. – 4. Concluding Remarks.
Background: One of the current topics at the international level is the COVID-19 pandemic, which has changed the lives of all people globally and caused economic and human losses. In legal scientific discourse, there are repercussions.
Methods: To uncover scientific knowledge and results, the authors apply qualitative research methods such as content analysis, the legal dogmatic method, and methods of induction and deduction. Essential tools that authors use in this research are primary legal texts of the International Criminal Court (ICC ) and other international treaties, as well as the case law of the ICC, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), the International Court of Justice (ICJ), ad hoc and internationalised and mixed (hybrid) tribunals, and secondary legal sources.
Results and Conclusions: This paper is based on the hypothetical situation of the deliberate creation and spread of a pandemic that resulted in enormous human losses. The authors examine the central question, which is whether viral homicide could be prosecuted as a crime against humanity before the ICC. The authors conclude that existing provisions of Art. 7 of the Rome Statute could not be interpreted so broadly as to encompass viral homicide as a crime against humanity. Expanding the scope of Art. 7 of the Rome Statute to cover viral homicide would violate basic principles of criminal law such as nullum crimen sine lege and lex certa.